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This category pertains to the preservation of the land use patterns and natural environment that provide the Village-like ambiance of Winnetka. Land use patterns are defined by the transitions between types and densities of occupation which are controlled by zoning. However the natural environment is defined some form of ecologically balanced, publically accessible open space, green and blue, will provide the foundation for sustainable activity. These built and natural considerations overlap with Economic Development, Sustainable Communities, and Water.

GRC2 Land Goals

  • Encourage strategic development that upholds sustainability principles
  • Conserve, restore and enhance natural features and ecosystems
  • Support networks of accessible well-used and enjoyable parks
  • Sustain a robust urban forest canopy
  • Sustain beautiful landscapes that provide ecosystem services
  • Achieve greater livability through sustainable land use and housing policies
  • Cultivate a conservation ethic in the community

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)


IPM is a process you can use to solve pest problems in your turf and gardens while minimizing risks to people, animals, and our environment. Pests include both plants as well as insects. IPM is an ecosystem-based strategy that focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation, modification of cultural practices, use of resistant varieties and judicious use of chemicals only when necessary.

IPM practitioners analyze each pest situation to determine the best management approach using five basic steps: inspection, identification, recommendation, treatment/control, and evaluation. Inspection and identification are necessary to diagnose a problem and develop a customized action plan.

Chemical Pesticides and IPM

Chemical Pesticides are toxic chemicals designed kill specific plants and animals/insects. Pesticides target insects, plants, fungi, and animals we want to eliminate. Unfortunately, targeting can bring unintended consequences, such as harming beneficial insects, other wildlife, and sometimes even ourselves.

With an IPM, chemical pesticides are used only after monitoring indicates they are needed according to established guidelines, and treatments are made with the goal of removing only the target organism. Pest control materials are selected and applied in a manner that minimizes risks to human health, beneficial and non-target organisms, and the environment. IPM is a safer and more effective way to control pests in the long run.

The use and misuse of these chemicals have been linked to a number of serious human health issues and environmental effects. Misuse of chemical pesticides may also reduce fertility of the soil below, pollute our water ecosystems, and threaten our drinking water sources and wildlife. Moreover, avoidance of pesticides will attract more earthworms, which aerate and fertilize soil naturally (and freely), which in turn increases plant life that attracts birds and other pollinators.

It’s important to be fully aware of the harmful effects of chemical pesticides so we can understand the need for alternative strategies for pest control, and help promote healthier lawns and gardens.

Basics of Natural Lawn Care and Avoidance of Chemical Pesticides

Soil Test: Healthy lawns require healthy soil. Grass thrives with properly balanced nutrients. Perform a soil test every three to five years to help determine exactly what you need to maintain your soil’s health. Testing is inexpensive (a soil test kit can be purchased for less than $20) and reduces unnecessary fertilizer applications.

Organic Fertilizer: Switch to an organic fertilizer made from plant or animal materials. Most commercial fertilizers have too much “fast release” nitrogen. Fast-release nitrogen is like junk food for plants, creating a cycle of dependency between your yard and synthetic chemicals. Grass can’t use all of the nitrogen at once, so a portion washes away, polluting nearby water resources. Organic fertilizers, on the other hand, allow the grass to absorb nutrients as needed as the excess nutrients bind to soil. Grass cycling, or leaving grass clippings on the lawn, is another great natural alternative to synthetic fertilizers. Nitrogen based synthetic fertilizers “green’ the grass leaves, putting all the growth into the top of the plant, whereas the additional nutrients in organic fertilizers feed the root system as well and the beneficial microbes in the soil biome. This helps the plant sink its roots deeper into the soil, where it can find more water and better withstand drought. So you won’t have to water as much. Organically fertilized plants have more developed vertical root systems than the nitrogen centrically fertilized plants, which have shallower root systems that make them more vulnerable to heat and drought.

Grubs may be controlled by using microscopic beneficial nematodes suspended in a water-based solution. Organic lawn services spray the nematode solution on your lawn, where they enter the mouth of the grub larvae. The nematodes secrete a bacteria from their gut that gives the grubs blood poisoning, and they die within 24-48 hours. Whichever methods are employed on your turf, fertilize only in the Spring and in the late Summer/early Fall when you reseed and grasses, not weeds, grow the most.

Reseed and Top Dress Annually: Reseed at least once a year, in the spring or fall, with a mix of grass seed and compost. Select a variety of grass that is well suited to your region. Use hardy grasses such as fescues and ryes when possible. To establish the seed, water slightly each day for at least two weeks. Top dressing with compost will naturally replenish your lawn, providing nutrients and microbes that keep your soil healthy.

Eliminate Weeds Naturally: Use a hand weeder to get the root source. Instead of using synthetic pesticides on your lawn and garden. Consider using corn gluten meal (CGM) (an organic, corn by-product that is a natural preventative weed control that breaks down over time as an organic nitrogen source) to reduce weeds. Apply it early in the spring usually right after the ground thaws and before the forsythia bloom to get a jump on weeds, which emerge before grass each year. Use a drop spreader for best results. Proteins in CGM inhibit root formation on newly-germinated seeds, killing the plant — it’s called the allelopathic effect. CGM should be applied 6 weeks before seeding or two weeks after, because it can kill grass as well if it’s applied too close to seeding. Do not apply CGM in areas that can run off into watersheds, since it contains nitrogen. Over the course of a few growing seasons, you will see how it reduces weeds naturally. Invest in a sturdy weeding tool and go after weeds as they appear, rather than all at once. Remember that a thick, healthy, dense turf is your best defense against weeds.

Water Correctly: Watering correctly is not about watering your lawn a fixed number of times each week. Instead, you want to water deeply and infrequently early in the morning to minimize evaporation and safeguard against fungus. Ideally, you want one inch of water delivered once a week. Use a tuna can to measure when you have reached one inch. Daily, brief watering discourages deep root growth, one of the essentials of healthy turf grass.

Mow Properly: Mow your lawn to at least three inches high. Correct mowing will increase the strength of the root system and naturally shade out weeds. Don’t mow your lawn every week out of habit if it doesn’t need it. Mow with sharp blades that make a clean cut. Dull blades will rip the grass and weaken your lawn’s defenses.

Diversify Your Yard: The reason turf grass takes so much work to maintain is that it is not native to our region. Turf grass is also a monoculture, which can lead to plant pathogens and diseases. Diversify your yard to include native grasses, trees, bushes, and perennials. These plants will enhance the beauty of your home, attract birds and beneficial insects, and give you more time to get out and enjoy the summer!

Use of Chemicals as a Last Resort: If the above natural organic techniques are not effective, use the following approach for limited and judicious application of chemical pesticides.


If your lawn and garden is properly maintained, herbicides will generally not be necessary. When they are needed, use them as part of an integrated management program that includes good cultural maintenance practices. No single herbicide will control all lawn weeds, and not all herbicides can be used on all lawn species. You must identify your weed problem(s) and turfgrass species before choosing an herbicide.

Before application review the University of California IPM Pest Management Guidelines for Turf. Review these as well with the professional turf managers and/or licensed pesticide applicators who you might hire. (University of California - Weed Management in Lawns)


If cultural practices are not enough to prevent insect damage choose selective, least toxic, IPM-compatible products whenever possible to control pests. Before application review the University of California IPM Pest Management Guidelines for Lawn Insects. Review these as well with the professional turf managers and/or licensed pesticide applicators who you might hire. (University of California - Lawn Insects)

Additional Resources

Midwest Pesticide Action Center

Activist's Toolkit for Residents

Municipal Pesticide Reduction Toolkit


Pesticides are a valuable tool for Illinois' agricultural production and to the protection of humans and the environment from pests, but it is essential to our general health and welfare that they be regulated to prevent adverse effects on humans and our environment.

Below are resources from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Illinois Department of Agriculture regarding pesticide usage:

Pesticide Resources (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

Pesticide Use & Regulations (Illinois Department of Agriculture)

Restricted Use Product Summary Report (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

Urban Forest Utilization

Did you know that trees removed in Winnetka can be recycled into mulch, furniture, flooring and more? In urban forest utilization, sawmills collect removed trees from communities and use them to create various wood products. The Village currently recycles a portion of their removed parkway trees through this practice. For more information call the Village Forester at 847 716-3535.

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